Chapter 5. Eyes
The Eyes.elm program shows two simple eyes, consisting of only the eye borders and pupils. The size of the eyes and the position of the pupils are dynamic. The eye size depends on the window size. The pupils positions depend on the position of the mouse pointer. Before continuing, take a look at the working program (Eyes.html) to get the idea.
The code is divided into three modules:
- EyesView
- EyesModel
- Eyes
We start our analysis with the EyesView module defined in the EyesView.elm file:
File EyesView.elm: {- This module contains functions which draw the eyes. -} module EyesView where import Color exposing (black, white) import Graphics.Collage exposing (Form, collage, filled, group, move, moveX, oval) import Graphics.Element exposing (Element) eyeBorder : Float -> Float -> Form eyeBorder w h = group [ filled black <| oval w h, filled white <| oval (w*9/10) (h*9/10) ] eyePupil : Float -> Float -> Form eyePupil w h = filled black <| oval w h eyesView : (Int, Int) -> (Float, Float, Float, Float) -> Element eyesView (w, h) (xPl, yPl, xPr, yPr) = let xC = (toFloat w) / 4 yC = (toFloat h) / 2 in collage w h [ eyeBorder (2*xC) (2*yC) |> moveX (-xC), eyeBorder (2*xC) (2*yC) |> moveX xC, eyePupil (xC/5) (yC/5) |> move (xPl,yPl), eyePupil (xC/5) (yC/5) |> move (xPr,yPr) ] -- test main = eyesView (700, 500) (-50, -50, 100, 100)
Before the module declaration we have included a multi-line comment. Such comments are delimited by the {- and -} pairs of characters.
The eyeBorder function takes two numbers representing the width and height of the eye and draws the eye border by drawing two ovals on top of each other: a black one is bigger and is placed below, while the white one is smaller and is drawed on top of the black one. The oval function creates an oval shape, given its two dimentions. The group function creates a Form from a list of Form values. Thanks to that, the created Form can be manipulated as one unit. The eyePupil function draws an oval representing the pupil. The eyeView function draws the eyes (two eye borders and two pupils) and returns the result as an Element. The eyeView function takes two arguments: a pair of values representing the width and height of the resulting Element, and a 4-element tuple containing the coordinates of both pupils.
It is no accident that we have implemented the drawing functions in a separate module. That allows us to define a main function for testing purposes. That main function will not be used by our program, since our program’s main function is defined in the Eyes module. We are thus free to use the main function of the EyesView module for testing — we use it to call the eyesView function with test arguments and after compiling the module, we can verify EyesView.html the result in the browser.
The definition of the main function is preceded with a one line comment. The beginning of the comment is denoted by two - (minus) characters.
The main difficulty of the example is calculating the pupils coordinates based on the coordinates of the mouse pointer. The mathematical algorithm of that calculation is implemented in the EyesModel module defined in the EyesModel.elm file. Again, it is no accident that we use a separate module. By implementing in the EyesModel module only functions, which do not handle signals and do not handle graphics, we can use the elm repl tool to import the module functions and test them.
Before implementing the calculation of pupils coordinates, we will first solve a simpler problem. Let’s consider only a quarter of one eye and let’s solve the problem of calculating the pupil coordinate under the assumption, that the mouse pointer is located within that quarter. Consider the following picture.
Point O is the center of the eye, and the R’R’’ arc is the internal eye border. The OC’CC’’ rectangle is the area where we assume the mouse pointer to be. Let M be the point where it is currently located. Point A is where the OM line crosses the OC’CC’’ rectangle and point B is where it crosses the R’R’’ arc. Our goal is to calculate the coordinates of point P placed on the OMA line, such that the following proportion holds:
OP/OB = OM/OA
Points R, C, and M are given. The coordinates of M can be derived from the Mouse.position signal. The coordinates of R and C — from the Window.dimensions signal.
We will use the following convention: for any point Z, we will denote its x and y coordinates by xZ and yZ. For example, xP and yP will denote the coordinates of the point P.
From the above proportion, we get the following equations describing the proportions between the x and y coordinates:
xP/xB = xM/xA yP/yB = yM/yA
We can therefore calculate xP and yP as follows:
xP = xB×xM/xA yP = yB×yM/yA
The values xM and yM are given. We need to calcualte the other values on the right hand sides of both equations. Let us first consider the coordinates of the point A.
Since points O, M and A are on the same line, we know that the following holds true:
xM/yM = xA/yA
We also know, that point A must be either between C and C' or between C and C’’. In the former case (which happens when yM/xM is smaller than yC/xC) we know that xA is equal to xC. We can thus calculate yA as follows:
yA = xC×yM/xM
In the latter case, yA is equal to yC, and we can calculate xA as follows:
xA = xM×yC/yM
We still need to calculate the coordinates of B. Since B is a point on an ellipsis, we can use the algebraic equation for elliptical schapes:
xB²/xR² + yB²/yR² = 1
After multiplying both sides by xR²×yR² we get:
xB²×yR² + yB²×xR² = xR²×yR²
Since points O, M and B are on the same line, we know that the following holds true:
xM/yM = xB/yB
and consequently:
xB = yB×xM/yM yB = xB×yM/xM
By substituting xB and yB in and solving the equations, we get the formulas for calculating xB and yB:
xB = xR×yR / sqrt(yR²+xR²×yM²/xM²) yB = xR×yR / sqrt(xR²+yR²×xM²/yM²)
The calculateP function from the EyesModel module implements the calculations:
File EyesModel.elm (fragment): module EyesModel where calculateP : (Float, Float) -> (Float, Float) -> (Float, Float) -> (Float, Float) calculateP (xR, yR) (xC, yC) (xM, yM) = let (xA, yA) = if (yM/xM < yC/xC) then (xC,xC*yM/xM) else (xM*yC/yM,yC) xB = xR*yR / sqrt (yR^2+(xR*yM/xM)^2) yB = xR*yR / sqrt (xR^2+(yR*xM/yM)^2) xP = xB*xM/xA yP = yB*yM/yA in (xP,yP)
For testing purposes, we can call the function with some example arguments using elm-repl:
> import EyesModel exposing (calculateP) > calculateP (200,100) (500,100) (10,10) (8.94427190999916,8.94427190999916) : ( Float, Float )
We must now calculate the coordinates of both pupils based on the width and height of the screen, and the mouse pointer coordinates. We will draw the eyes such that they fill the whole available window area. Each eye will fill half of the available area. We will thus have 8 quarters of an eye that we have to handle, as illustrated on the following picture.
Thus, the xC size will be equal to one-fourth of the window width, and yC will be equal to half of the window height. The xR and yR values will be set to 9/10 of xC and yC respectively. The pupilsCoordinates function calculates the coordinates of both pupils. It calls calculateP with parameters adjusted depending on which area of the screen the mouse pointer is. The function returns a 4-elements tuple containing the coordinates of both pupils.
File EyesModel.elm (fragment): pupilsCoordinates : (Int, Int) -> (Int, Int) -> (Float, Float, Float, Float) pupilsCoordinates (w, h) (x, y) = let xC = (toFloat w)/4 yC = (toFloat h)/2 xM = toFloat x yM = (toFloat (h-y)) - yC xR = xC*9/10 yR = yC*9/10 sign x = x / (abs x) (xPr,yPr) = if xM >= 3*xC then calculateP (xR,yR) (xC,yC) (xM-3*xC,yM) |> \(xP,yP) -> (xP+xC, yP * sign yM) else calculateP (xR,yR) (3*xC,yC) (3*xC-xM,yM) |> \(xP,yP) -> (xC-xP, yP * sign yM) (xPl,yPl) = if xM >= xC then calculateP (xR,yR) (3*xC,yC) (xM-xC,yM) |> \(xP,yP) -> (xP-xC, yP * sign yM) else calculateP (xR,yR) (xC,yC) (-xM+xC,yM) |> \(xP,yP) -> (-xP-xC, yP * sign yM) in (xPl,yPl,xPr,yPr)
What is left is the Eyes module that assembles the program modules together:
File Eyes.elm: module Eyes where import EyesModel exposing (..) import EyesView exposing (..) import Mouse import Signal import Window main = Signal.map2 eyes Window.dimensions Mouse.position eyes (w,h) (x,y) = eyesView (w,h) (pupilsCoordinates (w,h) (x,y))
It imports the Mouse and Window modules, because we are using signals form both of them. And it imports the functions from the EyesView and EyesModel modules. The main function combines the eyes function with the Window.dimensions and Mouse.position signals, and the eyes function uses pupilsCoordinates to make the calculations for given window dimensions and mouse positions.
The next chapter introduces time related signals.